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Be careful with your URL patterns

Published: October 14, 2007. Filed under: Django, Programming, Python.

Tonight in the Django IRC channel, someone stumbled across a seemingly-odd error when trying to use a generic view:

TypeError: object_list() got multiple values for keyword argument 'queryset'

The problem turned out to be the URL pattern which was routing to the generic view. Consider a simple example, as might be found in a weblog application:

from django.conf.urls.defaults import *
from weblog.models import Entry

info_dict = {
    'queryset': Entry.objects.all()

urlpatterns = ('',
    (r'^(index|weblog)/$', 'django.views.generic.list_detail.object_list', info_dict)

The idea here is that either of two different URLs — index/ or weblog/ — should route to the object_list generic view and display a list of entries, and at first glance this looks all right; it’s even somewhat clever in using the regular expression to handle two potential URLs instead of having two full patterns which essentially do the same thing. But it’ll actually raise the TypeError listed above.

The reason for this is that parentheses in a regular expression also capture the values they match. Django passes captured values as positional arguments, so the object_list view is getting, as its first positional argument, the bit of text which matched the (index|weblog) part of the regular expression. The first positional argument defined (after request) in the argument signature of object_list, as it turns out, is queryset, but the supplied info_dict dictionary is also going to try to pass that as a keyword argument, which means that the view does indeed end up getting two values for the queryset argument. And at that point Python steps in and raises the TypeError.

In retrospect I suppose this isn’t the most obvious thing in the world, because the common practice in Django applications is to match keyword arguments from the URL (using the ?P construct); in fact, I don’t think I’ve ever seen real-world code which relies on matching positional arguments from a URL. But it’s important to keep in mind that — because a URL pattern is a regular expression, and any captured value will end up being an argument to the view function — using bare parentheses in a URL to specify alternate means of matching can be a risky proposition.

If you find yourself needing to use this regex feature without the risk of accidentally screwing up your view’s arguments, use non-matching parentheses. The example pattern above could, then, be written like so:

(r'^(?:index|weblog)/$', 'django.views.generic.list_detail.object_list', info_dict)

and — because the ?: construct avoids capturing anything which would then be interpreted as an argument — it would work as expected.

Though the ultimate moral of the story is to take care with URL patterns, and to be sure that you understand both how Python’s regular expressions work and how Django handles URL dispatch; sound knowledge of both can prevent this sort of issue, or at least make it much easier to figure out if you run up against it.